Application of Volatile Compounds Analysis for Distinguishing between Red Wines from Poland and from Other European Countries

A. Stój, T. Czernecki, D. Domagała, Z. Targoński


Authenticity and the geographical origin of wines are terms of great importance for consumers and producers. This work is focused on distinguishing between red wines from Poland and from other European countries, notably France, Italy and Spain. To achieve this goal, we determined aroma compounds in wines from different countries by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The content of hexan-1-ol in Polish wines was significantly higher (about twice as high) than in French, Italian and Spanish wines.  Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that 3-(methylsulfanyl) propane-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, ethyl phenylacetate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate were the most discriminant variables for distinguishing between wines from Poland and from other European countries.  Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that Polish wines were separated thoroughly from the other wines based on ethyl phenylacetate, hexan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propan-1-ol, which is important for preventing possible frauds.


Aroma compounds; HS-SPME; GC-MS; Polish red wines; Geographical origin; Authenticity

Full Text:



Antalick, G., Perello, M.C. & de Revel, G., 2014. Esters in wines: new insight through the establishment of a database of French wines. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 63, 293-304.

Burin, V.M., Marchand, S., de Revel, G. & Bordignon-Luiz, M.T., 2013. Development and validation of method for heterocyclic compounds in wine: Optimization of HS-SPME conditions applying a response surface methodology. Talanta. 117, 87-93.

Bianchi, F., Careri, M., Mangia, A. & Musci, M., 2007. Retention indices in the analysis of food aroma volatile compounds in temperature‐programmed gas chromatography: Database creation and evaluation of precision and robustness. J. Sep. Sci. 30, 563-572.

Cabredo-Pinillos, S., Cedrón-Fernández, T. & Sáenz-Barrio, C., 2008. Differentiation of “Claret”, Rosé, Red and Blend wines based on the content of volatile compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226, 1317-1323.

Câmara, J.S., Alves, M.A. & Marques, J.C., 2006. Development of headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methodology for analysis of terpenoids in Madeira wines. Anal. Chim. Acta. 555, 191–200.

Coetzee, C. & Du Toit, W.J., 2015. Sauvignon blanc wine: Contribution of ageing and oxygen on aromatic and non-aromatic compounds and sensory composition - A review. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 36, 347-365.

Du, G., Zhan, J., Li, J., You, Y., Zhao, Y. & Huang, W., 2012. Effect of grapevine age on the aroma compounds in 'Beihong' wine. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 33, 7-13.

Duarte, W.F., Dias, D.R., Oliveira, J.M., Teixeira, J.A., de Almeida e Silva, J.B. & Schwan, R.F., 2010. Characterization of different fruit wines made from cacao, cupuassu, gabiroba, jaboticaba and umbu. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 43, 1564-1572.

Dugo, G, Franchina, F.A., Scandinaro, M.R., Bonaccorsi, I., Cicero, N., Tranchida, P.Q. & Mondello, L., 2014. Elucidation of the volatile composition of Marsala wines by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Food Chem. 142, 262-268.

Dziadas, M. & Jeleń, H.H., 2010. Analysis of terpenes in white wines using SPE-SPME-GC/MS approach. Anal. Chim. Acta. 677, 43-49.

Gamero, A., Wesselink, W. & de Jong, C., 2013. Comparison of the sensitivity of different aroma extraction techniques in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect minor aroma compounds in wine. J. Chromatogr. A. 1272, 1-7.

Goldner, M.C., di Leo Lira, P., van Baren, C. & Bandoni, A., 2011. Influence of polyphenol levels on the perception of aroma in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec wines. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 32, 21-27.

Goodner, K.L., 2008. Practical retention index models of OV-101, DB-1, DB-5, and DB-Wax for flavor and fragrance compounds. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 41, 951-958.

Jeleń, H.H., Majcher, M., Dziadas, M., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Czaczyk, K. & Wąsowicz, E., 2011. Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218, 7566-7573.

Jeleń, H.H., Majcher, M. & Dziadas, M., 2012. Microextraction techniques in the analysis of food flavor compounds: A review. Anal. Chim. Acta. 738, 13-26.

Jørgensen, U., Hansen, M., Christensen, L.P., Jensen, K. & Kaack, K., 2000. Olfactory and quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in elder flower (Sambucus nigra L.) drink processed from five cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 2376-2383.

Jurado, J.M., Ballesteros, O., Alcázar, A., Pablos, F., Martin, M.J., Vilchez, J.L. & Navalón, A., 2008. Differentiation of certified brands of origins of Spanish white wines by HS-SPME-GC and chemometrics. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 390, 961-970.

Kallio, H., 1989. Aroma of birch syrup. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 1367-1371.

King, E.S., Stoumen, M., Buscema, F., Hjelmeland, A.K., Ebeler, S.E., Heymann, H. & Boulton, R.B., 2014. Regional sensory and chemical characteristics of Malbec wines from Mendoza and California. Food Chem. 143, 256-267.

Mallouchos, A., Loukatos, P., Bekatorou, A., Koutinas, A. & Komaitis, M., 2007. Ambient and low temperature winemaking by immobilized cells on brewer’s spent grains: Effect on volatile composition. Food Chem. 104, 918-927.

Marengo, E., Aceto, M. & Maurino, V., 2001. Classification of Nebbiolo-based wines from Piedmont (Italy) by means of solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile compounds. J. Chromatogr. A. 943, 123-137.

Mendes, B., Gonçalves, J. & Câmara, J.S., 2012. Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines - a comparative study. Talanta. 88, 79-94.

Metafa, M. & Economou, A., 2013. Chemometrical development and comprehensive validation of a solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology for the determination of important free and bound primary aromatics in Greek wines. J. Chromatogr. A. 1305, 244-258.

Noguerol-Pato, R., Sieiro-Sampredro, T., González-Barreiro, C., Cancho-Grande, B. & Simal-Gándara, J., 2014. Effect on the aroma profile of Graciano and Tempranillo red wines of the application of two antifungal treatments onto vines. Molecules. 19, 12173-12193.

Pereira, V., Cacho, J. & Marques, J.C., 2014. Volatile profile of Madeira wines submitted to traditional accelerated ageing. Food Chem. 162, 122-134.

Perestrelo, R., Silva, C. & Câmara, J.S., 2014. A useful approach for the differentiation of wines according to geographical origin based on global volatile patterns. J. Sep. Sci. 37, 1974-1981.

Rodrigues, F., Caldeira, M., Câmara, J.S., 2008. Development of a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled to GC–qMSD for evaluation the chemical profile in alcoholic beverages. Anal. Chim. Acta. 609, 82-104.

Römisch, U., Jӓger, H., Capron, X., Lanteri, S., Forina, M. & Smeyers-Verbeke, J., 2009. Characterization and determination of the geographical origin of wines. Part III: multivariate discrimination and classification methods. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 230, 31-45.

Sáenz, C., Cedrón, T. & Cabredo, S., 2010. Classification of wines from five Spanish origin denominations by aromatic compound analysis. J. AOAC Int. 93, 1916-1922.

Sagratini, G., Maggi, F., Caprioli, G., Cristalli, G., Ricciutelli, M., Torregiani, E. & Vittori, S., 2012. Comparative study of aroma profile and phenolic content of Montepulciano monovarietal red wines from the Marches and Abruzzo regions of Italy using HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Food Chem. 132, 1592-1599.

Song, S., Tanga, Q., Hayat, K., Karangwa, E., Zhang, X. & Xiao, Z., 2014. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression. Meat Sci. 96, 1191–1200.

Stój, A., 2011. Metody wykrywania zafałszowań win. Żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość. 75(2), 17-26.

Tarko, T., Duda-Chodak, A., Sroka, P., Satora P. & Jurasz, E., 2010. Polish wines: Characteristics of cool-climate wines. J. Food Comp. Anal. 23, 463-468.

Trani, A., Verrastro, V., Punzi, R., Faccia, M. & Gambacorta, G., 2016. Phenols, volatiles and sensory properties of Primitivo wines from the "Gioia Del Colle" PDO Area. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 37, 139-148.

Tufariello, M., Capone, S. & Siciliano, P., 2012. Volatile components of Negroamaro red wines produced in Apulian Salento area. Food Chem. 132, 2155-2164.

Vilanova, M., Genisheva, Z., Graña, M. & Oliveira, J.M., 2013. Determination of odorants in varietal wines from international grape cultivars (Vitis vinífera) grown in NW Spain. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 34, 212-222.

Welke, J.E., Zanus, M., Lazzarotto, M., Schmitt, K.G. & Zini, C.A., 2012a. Volatile characterization by multivariate optimization of headspace-solid phase microextraction and sensorial evaluation of Chardonnay base wines. J. Brazil. Chem. Soc. 23, 678-687.

Welke, J.E., Manfroi, V., Zanus, M., Lazzarotto, M. & Zini, C.A., 2012b. Characterization of the volatile profile of Brazilian Merlot wines through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. J. Chromatogr. A. 1226, 124-139.

Wilk, K., 2011. Polski rynek win w świetle zmian w krajowych i wspólnotowych uregulowaniach prawnych. Studia i Prace Wydziału Nauk Ekonomicznych i Zarządzania. 22, 135-148.

Yan, J., Liu, X.B., Zhu, W.W., Zhong, X., Sun, Q. & Liang, Y.Z., 2015. Retention indices for identification of aroma compounds by GC: Development and application of a retention index database. Chromatographia. 78, 89-108.

Weldegergis, B.T., de Villiers, A., McNeish, Ch., Seethapathy, S., Mostafa, A., Górecki, T. & Crouch, A.M., 2011. Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). Food Chem. 129, 188-199.

Zhang, L., Tao, Y.S., Wen, Y. & Wang, H., 2013. Aroma evaluation of young Chinese Merlot wines with denomination of origin. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 34, 46-53.

Ziółkowska A., Wąsowicz E. & Jeleń H.H., 2016. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods. Food Chem. 213, 714-720.



  • There are currently no refbacks.